Chris Smart



Contact Information

Office: Room 1402, SSC
Tel: 519 661-2111, 85007
Fax: 519 661-1233

Research Areas

Hydrology and geomorphology

Research Interests

Environmental signals for climate, hydrology and water quality are often complex in their behaviour and response to stress and stimuli. Standard monitoring schemes may fail to detect or reveal this complexity, perhaps obscuring changes or shifts in response patterns. The approach adopted here is to develop and apply alternative monitoring strategies. For example, in surface and ground waters, continuous monitoring is used to generate detailed time series. Water quality surrogates such as dissolved oxygen and electrical conductivity are used to represent chemical evolution rather than using detailed laboratory analysis. Distributed monitoring allows interpretation of transport processes and contaminant source areas. Particular interest has been in the relationship between bacterial pathogens, runoff processes and surrogate monitoring, with the hope that the latter can reveal bacterial behaviour more efficiently than current infrequent sampling schemes. Work on monitoring of karst aquifers is directed at practical provision of parameters essential in characterizing the aquifer and in implementing hydrological and transport models. Dye tracing and borehole monitoring are the primary tools being developed.

Landscapes in the southern Appalachians and South Island New Zealand have been studied to determine the response to past climate changes. The landscapes are of considerable age in both cases and show remnant forms produced under much wetter and geomorphically active periods in the past. Land system models are being derived for the respective cases.

Environmental data are being generated and released at increasing rates presenting opportunities and challenges in analyzing data and communicating the results to a broader audience. Exploratory visual techniques are being developed allowing a wide range of responses to identified and visually presented to show the subtlety and diversity of responses to global change.

Publications & Supervised Graduate Students and Theses Titles

Refereed Journals

Worthington S.R.H. and Smart, C.C. 2016. Transient bacterial contamination of the dual-porosity aquifer at Walkerton, Ontario, Canada. Hydrogeology Journal. In Press.

Sims, A.W., Robinson, C.E., Smart, C.C., Voogt, J.A., Hay, G.J., Lundholm, J.T., Powers B. and O’Carroll, D.M. 2016. Retention Performance of Green Roofs in Three Different Climate Regions, Journal of Hydrology. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.08.055 Vol 542 115-124.

Khajavi, N., Langridge, R.M., Quigley, M.C., Smart, C.C., Rezanejad, A., Martín-González, F. 2016 Late Holocene rupture behaviour and earthquake chronology on the Hope Fault, New Zealand Geological Society of America Bulletin. DOI: 10.1130/B31199.1.

Worthington, S.R.H., and Smart, C.C. 2016. Optimisation of tracer mass for groundwater tracer tests in carbonate aquifers Precipitates and Evaporites In press. DOI:10.1007/s13146-013-0171-4.

Worthington, S.R.H. Smart, C.C. and Rueland, W. 2012. Triple porosity characteristics of a carbonate aquifer with bacterial contamination: Walkerton, Ontario, Canada. Journal of Hydrology. Vol 464-465, 517-527.

Schulmeister, J., Thackray, G.D., Rieser, U, Rother, H., Smart, C.C. and Evans DJA. 2010.  The stratigraphy and timing of glaciation in the middle Rakaia Valley, South Island, New Zealand with some implications for understanding past glaciations in New Zealand. Quaternary Science Reviews, Vol 29(17), 2362-2381.

Chapters in books

Ford, D.C. and Smart, C.C., 2015. The Castleguard Karst. In Slaymaker O. (Ed.) Landscapes of Western Canada.

Supervised Graduate Students and Theses Titles

PhD Students Year Title
J. Orwin 2002 The proglacial control on suspended sediment transfer patterns from a deglacierizing basin, Small River, British Columbia
MSc Students Year Title
S. Wang 2018 Development of exploratory data analysis methods for chemical, spatial and temporal analysis of surface water quality data: the Ontario Provincial Water Quality Monitoring Network
C. Crawley 2010 Spatial and temporal assessment of the Thames River surface water quality monitoring program, Ontario
T. Davie 2009 Alternative monitoring strategies for mesoscale catchments: Medway Creek, Ontario
R. Adams 2007 Filter Fluorometric Tracing for Contaminant Transport Modeling
E. Hill 2006 Suspended sediment and pathogens in surface waters
S. Bod 2004 Surface and ground water response of an upland swamp to drainage and drainage control in Norfolk County, Ontario
A. Joyce 2004 Exploration of fluorometric monitoring of surface waters
A. Calarco 2003 Modeling systematic spatial error of digital terrain models
J. Barker 2000 An investigation of borehole hydrology in carbonate aquifers
S. Lane 1999 Investigation of systematic errors in fluorometric tracing
D. Lockrey 1996 Suspended sediment variations in a glacierized alpine catchment
L. Zabo 1995 Fluorometric tracing of subglacial hydrology, Small River Glacier, British Columbia, Canada
B. Ketterling 1995 Electrical conductivity of waters in glacier boreholes
K. Carr 1994 An investigation of the subglacial drainage system beneath the lower abliation zone of Small River Glacier, British Columbia
D. Huntley 1990 Hydrogeomorphology of an alpine karst


GEO 2210 - Spatial Analysis
GEO 3000 - Field Methods & Practices
GEO 3341 - Hydrology
GEO 3342 - Groundwater Hydrology
GEO 9103 - Environmental Monitoring
GEO 9220 - Hydrology
GEO 9999 - Research DesignAwardsProfessional Activities